 Polymer is used as a synonym for plastic. Reactivity ratios. Copolymer: On the other hand, a copolymer is made up of two or more types of repeating units. Compositions based on monomers of such polymers are also classified in C08G. Polymers obtained during condensation reaction are called condensation Polymers. Types of Polymer. Addition Polymers are formed by the repeated addition of monomers containing double or triple bonds. These reactions are classified as: Depending on how they are linked or joined (chemical bonds or intermolecular forces) and on the arrangement of the different chains that forms the polymer, the resulting polymeric materials can be classified as: Depending on the chemical composition, polymers can be inorganic such as glass, or they can be organic, such as adhesives of epoxy resin. Two very common techniques for measuring the molecular mass of polymers are high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), also known as size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Polyethene, PVC, Nylons, polyesters etc. Classification of polymer based on sources. Classification of Polymers Based on Structure (i) Linear polymers These are the polymers in which the monomer units are linked to one another to form long linear chains. Poly he a methylene dopamine 4. Artificial polymers: They are artificially made in industries for various commercial uses. E.g. Polymer is basically thousands/millions of monomer units or single repeating unit connected in long chains. Study Materials Classification of Polymers: Source, Structure, Polymerisation, Examples Types of Polymerization: Condensation vs. Artificial Polymers ADHESIVES | Can have more than one type of repeat unit. Depending on the repetition or variety of monomers, polymers are classified as: Homopolymer - It is called when the polymer formed by the same monomer throughout its chain. Monomers are thus building blocks of polymers. • Linear polymers have monomeric units joined end to end in single chains. A copolymer is a polymer derived from more than one species of monomer. 1. Classification of polymers. What are monomers? Polymer means many monomers. The close packing results in high densities, tensile strength and high melting and boiling points. The particular form and morphology … What is polymerisa, Solubility process The dissolving process in polymer is very slow and occurs in two steps as 1) The solvent dissolves into the polymer to give a swollen gel. In these polymers the monomer units are joined to form a long and linear chain. The transformation of ethene to polythene and interaction of hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid leading to the formation of Nylon- 6, 6 are examples of two different types of polymerisation reactions. Thus the sign of ΔG is dependent on the sign and magnitude of heat of mixing ΔH. This classification includes the following categories; Homopolymer: A homopolymer is made up of only one type of monomer. That is, = and =, where for example is the rate constant for propagation of a polymer chain ending in monomer 1 (or A) by addition of monomer 2 (or B). All have a … Polymer is used as a synonym for plastic . [2] Copolymer: When two different types of monomers are joined in the same polymer chain, the polymer is called a copolymer. Conveniently, all polymers can be assigned to one of two groups based upon their processing characteristics or the type of polymerization mechanism. 6. A hazard ranking model for environmental and human health hazard classifications was developed. For example; Cellulose diacetate, Vulcanised rubber. All about Polymers and polymer chemistry for undergraduate students. polymer,classification of polymers,polymerization,copolymer,polythene.PVC,polystyrene,polyester,polycarbonates,polyamides,nylon6.6,addition ,isotactic This is one of the best Blogs for free tutorials about various parts of chemistry, such as element chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, … The polymers were ranked based on monomer hazard classifications, and initial assessments were made. Polyethylene consist of monomer ethene only. [2] Copolymer: When two different types of monomers are joined in the same polymer chain, the polymer is called a copolymer. The cross-linking restricts the motion of the chains and leads to a rigid material. Classification of Polymers. Structure of polythene. These Polymers are also called man made Polymers. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a plastic polymer made of monomer vinyl chloride. Examples: polyethylene, PVC, nylon. These monomers are known as straight polymers. Polymers: Lecture 2 Prepared by Dr Arunima Nayak and Dr Brij Bhushan Classification of Polymers 1. Polymers can be classified by using the backbone of the polymeric chain, type of synthesis, source, monomer, molecular forces, etc. Based on Structure/Shape of polymer Polymers can be linear, branched, cross linked or networked. The polymers that ranked as most hazardous are made of monomers classified as mutagenic and/or carcinogenic (category 1A or 1B). All plastics are polymers … Most important addition polymers are polymerized from olefins and vinyl-based monomers. Emulsion Polymers are tremendously versatile! Polymerization is the process by which ​monomer molecules ​ are reacted together in a chemical reaction to form a polymer chain (or three-dimensional networks). For example Polymers example Polythene Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Nylon Teflon Bakelite Terylene Cellulose diacetate Vulcanised rubber Starch Melamine formaldehyde resin Polymers Uses Coatings Adhesives Laminates Electrolytes Plastic pipes Films Questions on polymers What are polymers? Polymers may however still be subject to authorisation and restriction. Nonetheless, manufacturers and importers of polymers may still be required to register the monomers or other substances used as building blocks of the polymer, as these molecules are generally recognised as of higher concern than the polymer molecule itself. Classification. When the monomers react to form a network, a 3-D structure, then those polymers are known as Network polymers. Polypropene, also known as polypropylene, is made up of monomer propene. For example; Bakelite, melamine formaldehyde resin. Rubber bands and other elastics are made of elastomers. 55 plastic polymers were ranked based on monomer classifications, and assessed. These are expected to be quite hard, rigid and brittle. It is also known as macro molecules. The following are some of the common classifications of polymers: Under this type of classification, there are three sub categories. A simulated skeletal structure of a network polymer with a high cross-link density is shown below. The polymers were ranked based on monomer hazard classifications, and initial assessments were made. Introduction to Polymer Fibres. On the basis of the monomers polymers are classified into two types namely. There may be extensive van der Waals and hydrogen bonding between the chains. Classification of polymers: Classification based on source of availability: 1. Classification of polymers based on their structure can be of three types: (i) Linear polymers: These polymers are similar in structure to a long straight chain which identical links connected to each other. For example: Polythene, Nylon,Teflon, PVC . Classification of polymers Based on the Structure . This process of formation of polymers from respective monomers is called polymerisation. The polymers are defined as macromolecules composed of one or more chemical units (monomers) that are repeated throughout a chain. A polymer can be named in one of two ways. Copolymer - It is called when the polymer formed by at least 2 different monomers along the entire chain. Polymers: Lecture 2 Prepared by Dr Arunima Nayak and Dr Brij Bhushan Classification of Polymers 1. Thousands of different polymers have been synthesized and more will be produced in the future.  The word POLYMER comes from the Greek words poly means many and mer means parts. These polymers have high melting points and are of higher density. The monomers in these are linked together to form a long chain. The urea-formaldehyde resin is a non-transparent plastic obtained by heating formaldehyde and urea. Monomers are small and simple molecules depend and have a capacity of forming two chemical bonds with two other monomers. To stretch, the polymer chains must not be part of a rigid solid - either a glass or a crystal. On the basis of monomers On the basis of the monomers polymers are classified into two types namely For example;High density polythene,PVC, Nylon, Polyester. Based on how they are polymerized, the classification is as follows: Addition Polymerization : Polymers formed by the addition of monomers repeatedly without the removal of any by-product (water or alcohol). 2. Types of mer Involved. 2] Classification Based on Structure of Polymers. The average molecular weight of the polymer molecular. 2 mins read. received from Ireland after the CA meeting in : December 2007 some additional guidance on . Copolymer: When two different types of monomers are joined in the same polymer chain, the polymer is called a copolymer. Among the other properties that can be modified based on these factors include solubility in and other solvents, melting point, flammability, color, hardness, transparency, film thickness, wetability, surface friction, moldability, and particle size—the list goes on. Based on Number of Monomers: Polymers can be homopolymer or copolymer when the number of monomers are one and two respectively. These may be represented as : -[A-A-A-A-A-A]- Homopolymers are commonly named by placing the prefix poly in front of the constituent monomer name. ADHESIVE BONDING. Classification of Polymers Based on Mode of Polymerisation under REACH. Classification of polymers. Based on the type of polymerization, polymers can be classified as: i) Addition polymers: These type of polymers are formed by the repeated addition of monomer molecules. There are several ways of classification of polymers based on some special considerations. Natural polymers: These polymers are found in plants and animals. For very high molecular weight, the solution process takes days or weeks. A polymer is a high molecular mass compound ranging from 5000 to one million and they are formed by the combination of a large number of one or more low molecular weight compounds. Monomers and their dimer counterparts are archetypal plasmonic structures and a versatile theory could rightfully be expected to offer new insights for both individual monomers as well as for ass… Some examples of the synthetic polymers are polyethylene, polystyrene, PTFE synthetic rubber, nylon, PVC, bakelite, teflon, orion, etc. Polyethylene Classification of Polymers 1. It can also be prepared by ring-opening polymerization of lactide [–C(CH 3)HC(=O)O–] 2, the cyclic dimer of the basic repeating unit. Working-up, general processes of compounding and after-treatment are covered by subclass C08J. Classification on the bases of source: Natural polymers: These polymers are obtained either from plants or animal and are named as plant polymer e.g. Natural polymers These polymers are found in plants and animals. cellulose, jute, linen, silk, wool etc. Some examples of the synthetic polymers are polyethylene, polystyrene, PTFE synthetic rubber, nylon, PVC, bakelite, teflon, orion, etc. Classification of polymers based on their structure can be of three types: (i) Linear polymers: These polymers are similar in structure to a long straight chain which identical links connected to each other. There are various ways to classify polymers based on source, structure, mode of forming, molecular forces etc. 2] Classification Based on Structure of Polymers Classification of polymers based on their structure can be of three types: (i) Linear polymers: These polymers are similar in structure to a long straight chain which identical links connected to each other.The monomers in these are linked together to form a long chain. The formation of the polymer chains are produced by different polyreactions that can occur between monomers. Common examples would be … All simple molecules cannot behave as monomers but only those with two or more bonding sites can act as monomers. Examples are proteins, cellulose, starch, some resins and rubber. If they are classified based on the backbone of the polymeric chain then they will be divided as organic and inorganic polymers. The monomer … The simple compounds from which polymers are made, are called monomers. For reasonably non polar molecules and in the absence of hydrogen bonding ΔH is positive. The Polymers prepared in laboratory are called synthetic Polymers. Polymerisation The process of conversion of simple molecules i.e monomers into polymers is called polymerisation. Polymers are divided into three types on the basis of source of availability. INTRODUCTION Polymers are very large molecules made when hundreds of monomers join together to form long chains . For example natural rubber is obtained as latex from rubber trees. Polymers are classified into different types on the basis of monomers, source of availability, structure,mode of synthesis. Solubility Parameter A polymer is soluble when the Gibbs free energy of mixing i.e ΔG = ΔH - TΔS is negative. Synthetic polymers: A variety of synthetic polymers as plastic (polythene), synthetic fibres (nylon 6,6) and synthetic rubbers (Buna – S) are examples of manmade polymers extensively used in daily life as well as in industry. 5. B- Classification Based on the structure of polymers : There are three different types based on the structure of the polymers. Classification based on the Structure of Polymers. Based on Structure of Polymers: There are three different types based on the structure of the polymers. A polymer is like a thread joins many coins punched through the center, in the end we get a string of coins, the coins would be the monomers, and the chain with the coins would be the polymer. Monomers react with each other in end to end fashion such that they form linear or straight chains of polymers. Research highlights Environmental and health hazards of chemicals in polymer production were identified. Depending on the repetition or variety of monomers, polymers are classified as: Homopolymer - It is called when the polymer formed by the same monomer throughout its chain. Classification of Polymerization Reaction For example, polythene, polyvinyl chloride etc. 2. This classification includes the following categories; 1. Properties. Linear polymers on Structure • In these polymers monomers are linked with each other and form a long straight chain. Homopolymers: These consist of chains with identical bonding linkages to each monomer unit. The word POLYMER comes from the Greek words poly means many and mer means parts . Examples: polyethylene, PVC, nylon. The properties of polymers are strongly influenced by details of the chain structure. These include starch cellulose, proteins, nucleic acids and natural rubber. Polylactic acid, or polylactide (PLA) is a thermoplastic polyester with backbone formula (C 3 H 4 O 2) n or [–C(CH 3)HC(=O)O–] n, formally obtained by condensation of lactic acid C(CH 3)(OH)HCOOH with loss of water (hence its name). 2] Classification Based on Structure of Polymers Classification of polymers based on their structure can be of three types: (i) Linear polymers: These polymers are similar in structure to a long straight chain which identical links connected to each other. The polymers are also classified based on: … These details include the overall chemical composition and the sequence of monomer units in the case of copolymers, the stereochemistry or tacticity of the chain, and the geometric isomerization in the case of diene-type polymers for which several synthesis routes may be possible. 1. They can be subdivided into two broad classes, depending on the kind of the polymer that they form. Therefore, cannot be classified under a single branch. Revise with Concepts. 1. Oligomer – a small macromolecule consisting of around 10 to 100 chemically bonded monomer repeat units. Starch is a polymer of glucose, cellulose is also a polymer of glucose, proteins are polymers of amino acids. The polymerization of monomers into copolymers is called copolymerization. There are a wide range of materials whose composition is based on polymers, all plastics, paint, coatings, adhesives, composites, etc ... these are examples of polymer-based materials we use in our daily life. By Monomer Homo Polymers A polymer consist of identical monomers is called homo polymer. Polymerization, as we know it, is the process by which monomers undergo a chemical reaction to bond and form a polymer chain. 2. preparation of polymers. Each monomer that is added to form polymers is called repeat units. Section 2.1 and 3.1 – Reference to monomers as : intermediate reworded in order to be consistent with . The small molecules that are used in synthesizing a polymer are called monomers. Section 3.2.1.2 - Based on the comments . There is little interest in small organic molecules based on the monomers. CLASSIFICATION OF POLYMERS : 1. The addition polymers are generally prepared from unsaturated compounds. Glyptal is made up of monomers ethylene glycol and phthalic acid. 27/05/2008 : Version 2.0 . The polymers which are prepared in the laboratory are referred to as synthetic polymers or man-made polymers. INTRODUCTION | The process by which the polymers are formed is called polymerisation. Polymer nomenclature usually applies to idealised representations; minor structural irregularities are ignored. 1. Polymers are macromolecules having high molecular weights and they are composed of smaller repeating units called monomers. They have vast chemistries and provide low cost, low emissions, zero VOC, good shelf-life, freeze-thaw stability, and potential sustainability in many coating formulations.Due to these benefits, the use of emulsion polymers is increasingly used in paints and coatings serve growing needs in diverse sectors and applications. Based on their structure, the polymers can be classified into three types such as linear polymers, branched-chain polymers, and network, or cross linked polymers. Polymers are formed through chemical reactions that convert large numbers of low-molecular-weight molecules, known as monomers, into large, very high-molecular-weight long-chain macromolecules.Resins are compositions of either monomers or macromolecules blended with other components to provide a material with a useful set of properties. Alkenes, vinyl chloride, adipic acid, glycol with two bonding sites act as monomers. The reactivity ratio of a growing copolymer chain terminating in a given monomer is the ratio of the reaction rate constant for addition of the same monomer and the rate constant for addition of the other monomer. Homopolymer: A polymer resulting from the polymerization of a single monomer; a polymer consisting substantially of a single type of repeating unit . 2] Classification Based on Structure of Polymers. Fig.4. Examples of cross linked polymers are bakelite, glyptal, melamine-formaldehyde polymer etc. Classification Based on Composition of Polymers: [1] Homopolymer: A polymer resulting from the polymerization of a single monomer; a polymer consisting substantially of a single type of repeating unit. Among the properties that define the properties of polymers, the most important are: The glass transition temperature of the polymer. Addition, Videos and Examples Polymers: Classification, Polymerization, Biodegradable Polymers, Rubber. The Polymers obtained from nature ( i.e plants and animals) are called natural polymers. 3. Natural polymers: They are naturally present within the bodies of the living organisms. 1.2 Polymer Structure. These techniques are based on forcing a polymer solution through a matrix of cross-linked polymer particles at high pressure of up to several hundred bars. 2. 2) The gel gradually disintegrates into true solution. Since the entropy of mixing ΔS is always positive. Classification Based on Composition of Polymers. Therefore, cannot be classified under a single branch. 2. (iii) Cross-linked polymers or network polymers In such polymers, the monomer units are linked together to form three dimensional network. ADHESIVE & GLUE | The monomers in … The polymers that ranked as most hazardous are made of monomers classified as mutagenic and/or carcinogenic (category 1A or 1B). Homopolymer: A homopolymer is made up of only one type of monomer. There may be extensive van der Waals and hydrogen bonding between the chains. The building block through which any polymer molecule is built is known as a monomer. In these polymers the monomer units are joined to form long chain with branches of different length. Branched chain Polymers are linear polymers containing branches. Source-based nomenclature can be used when the can be monomer identified. Anything that is made up of same type of Chemical composition which is repeated numerous times can be considered as a polymer. There are several ways of classification of polymers based on some special considerations. For example; cellulose, starch, proteins, nucleic acids. Classification of Polymers Polymers are classified into different types on the basis of monomers, source of availability, structure,mode of synthesis. When monomers react in a manner that branches are formed in the chains of the polymers, then those polymers are known as branched polymers. Polymers are a huge chain of molecules. Polymers; Polymer chemistry; monomers; polymerisation; example;uses; questions; revision. Classification Based on Composition of Polymers: [1] Homopolymer: A polymer resulting from the polymerization of a single monomer; a polymer consisting substantially of a single type of repeating unit. Due to their complex structures, different behaviours, and vast applications we can, classify polymers based on the following criteria: Linear Polymers are straight chain polymers which are formed when monomers are joined end to end. The small molecules that are used in synthesizing a polymer are called monomers. Classification of Polymer based on Structure. In this case heat of mixing per unit volume ∆H= v₁v₂ ( δ₁-δ₂)² Here  v₁ and v₂ are volume fraction of solvent and polymer respectively and δ² is the cohesive e, Classification based on source of availability, Classification of Polymers on the basis of Structure, Classification of polymers on the basis of synthesis. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) contains monomer. Monomers that participate in condensation polymerization have a different stoichiometry than monomers that participate in addition polymerization: This nylon is formed by condensation polymerization of two monomers, yielding water. Branched Polymers - Linear polymer with branches with same structure/polymer as the main chain (1 kind of polymer) Crosslinked/network Polymers - Chemical linkage exist between polymer chain . These linear chains are closely packed in space. Naturally occurring polymers: These occur in plants and animals and are very essential for life. Polymer chemistry It is a branch of chemistry in which we study about polymers. Derivatives of natural macromolecular polymers per se, e.g. The functionality of monomers depends upon the number of bonding sites in monomer. Copolymer contains two or more different monomers. • Linear polymers have monomeric units joined end to end in single chains. Polyethylene, PVC, Polypropylene, Nylon 6 Co Polymers A polymer consist of monomers of different chemical structure are called copolymers. Polymers are classified into three types on the basis of Structure. Polymers are high  molecular mass  substances containing large number of repeating structural units derived from simple molecules. When monomers react in a manner that branches are formed in the chains of the polymers, then those polymers are known as branched polymers. new clarification of intermediate definition. 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